Once again, an ill-informed public figure raises doubts about the safety of vaccination. Mrs. Bachmann called the HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer “dangerous” and later suggested that HPV is linked to “mental retardation”, apparently because a woman she met briefly at a campaign event told her so. As discussed in Chap. 8, there have indeed been cases of vaccines causing damage, but gaps in public vaccination programs can do a lot of damage. For instance, in Japan in the 1970s, 2 children died within 24 hours of receiving the diptheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT) vaccine. This led to the suspension of this vaccination, which was started up again 2 months later, but with the shots being given at 2 years of age rather than at the usual 3 months. A pertussis epidemic followed, involving 13,000 cases and 41 deaths. A similar scare in England in the late 1970s caused the rate of immunization to fall from 80% to 30%. Subsequent years saw 300,000 pertussis cases and 70 deaths. In the latest update on the vaccine-causes-autism controversy, the US Institute of Medicine of the National Academies released a new report clearing vaccines as an autism culprit (http://www.iom.edu/reports/2011/adverse-effects-of-vaccines-evidence-and-causality.aspx).