As discussed in Chap. 7, evidence has a accumulated linking immune involvement to major depressive disorder. A new paper from Karoly Mirnics at Vanderbilt University provides further support for this association (Shelton et al., Molecular Psychiatry 16:751, ’11). This study examined changes in gene expression in several brain regions of post-mortem samples taken from psychotropic drug-free patients and controls. Remarkably, compared to controls, 13 different pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated in the depression samples. This is strong evidence of a local inflammatory state, and is reminiscent of findings in autism and schizophrenia (also presented in Chap. 7).